Water, The Chemistry of Life.
attempt to determine whether there is life as we know it on Mars or other
planets, scientists first seek to establish whether or not water is present.
Why? Because life on earth totally depends on water.
percentage of living things, both plant and animal are found in water. All
life on earth is thought to have arisen from water. The bodies of all living
organisms are composed largely of water. About 70 to 90 percent of all
organic matter is water.
The chemical reactions in all plants and animals that support life take
place in a water medium.
Water not only provides the medium to make these life sustaining reactions
possible, but water itself is often an important reactant or product of
these reactions. In short, the chemistry of life is water chemistry.
Water, the Universal Solvent
Water is a
universal, superb solvent due to the marked polarity of the water molecule
and its tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. One water
molecule, expressed with the chemical symbol H2O,
consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.
alone, the hydrogen atom contains one positive proton at its core with one
negative electron revolving around it in a three-dimensional shell.
on the other hand, contains 8 protons in its nucleus with 8 electrons
revolving around it. This is often shown in chemical notation as the letter
O surrounded by eight dots representing 4 sets of paired electrons.
hydrogen electron and the 8 electrons of oxygen are the key to the chemistry
of life because this is where hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine to form a
water molecule, or split to form ions.
to ionize by losing its single electron and form single H+ ions, which are
simply isolated protons since the hydrogen atom contains no neutrons. A
hydrogen bond occurs when the electron of a single hydrogen atom is shared
with another electronegative atom such as oxygen that lacks an electron.
Polarity of Water Molecules
In a water
molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen atom. But
because the oxygen atom is larger than the hydrogen's, its attraction for
the hydrogen's electrons is correspondingly greater so the electrons are
drawn closer into the shell of the larger oxygen atom and away from the
hydrogen shells. This means that although the water molecule as a whole is
stable, the greater mass of the oxygen nucleus tends to draw in all the
electrons in the molecule including the shared hydrogen electrons giving the
oxygen portion of the molecule a slight electronegative charge.
shells of the hydrogen atoms, because their electrons are closer to the
oxygen, take on a small electropositive charge. This means water molecules
have a tendency to form weak bonds with water molecules because the oxygen
end of the molecule is negative and the hydrogen ends are positive.
atom, while remaining covalently bonded to the oxygen of its own molecule,
can form a weak bond with the oxygen of another molecule. Similarly, the
oxygen end of a molecule can form a weak attachment with the hydrogen ends
of other molecules. Because water molecules have this polarity, water is a
continuous chemical entity.
bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the shape of many of the large
molecules found in living matter. Because these bonds are weak, they are
readily broken and re-formed during normal physiological reactions. The
disassembly and re-arrangement of such weak bonds is in essence the
Chemistry of Life.
illustrate water's ability to break down other substances, consider the
simple example of putting a small amount of table salt in a glass of tap
water. With dry salt (NaCl) the attraction between the electropositive
sodium (Na+) and electronegative chlorine (Cl-) atoms of salt is very strong
until it is placed in water. After salt is placed in water, the attraction
of the electronegative oxygen of the water molecule for the positively
charged sodium ions, and the similar attraction of the electropositive
hydrogen ends of the water molecule for the negatively charged chloride
ions, are greater than the mutual attraction between the outnumbered Na+ and Cl- ions. In water the ionic bonds of the sodium chloride molecule are
broken easily because of the competitive action of the numerous water
As we can see
from this simple example, even the delicate configuration of individual
water molecules enables them to break relatively stronger bonds by
converging on them. This is why we call water the universal solvent. It is a
natural solution that breaks the bonds of larger, more complex molecules.
This is the chemistry of life on earth, in water and on land.
reduction means the addition of an electron (e-), and its converse,
oxidation means the removal of an electron. The addition of an electron,
reduction, stores energy in the reduced compound. The removal of an
electron, oxidation, liberates energy from the oxidized compound. Whenever
one substance is reduced, another is oxidized.
To clarify these
terms, consider any two molecules, A and B, for example.
A and B come into contact, here is what happens:
B grabs an
electron from molecule A.
Molecule A has
been oxidized because it has lost an electron.
The net charge of
B has been reduced because it has gained a negative electron (e-).
systems, removal or addition of an electron constitutes the most frequent
mechanism of oxidation-reduction reactions. These oxidation-reduction
reactions are frequently called redox reactions.
An acid is a
substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in water. A
base is a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions, in
other words, increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-.
The degree of
acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured in terms of a value known as
pH, which is the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions:
pH = 1/log[H+]
What is pH?
On the pH
scale, which ranges from 0 on the acidic end to 14 on the alkaline end, a
solution is neutral if its pH is 7. At pH 7, water contains equal
concentrations of H+ and OH- ions. Substances with a pH less than 7 are
acidic because they contain a higher concentration of H+ ions.
with a pH higher than 7 are alkaline because they contain a higher
concentration of OH- than H+. The pH scale is a log scale so a change of one
pH unit means a tenfold change in the concentration of hydrogen ions.
of balancing pH
are extremely sensitive to pH and function best (with certain exceptions,
such as certain portions of the digestive tract) when solutions are nearly
neutral. Most interior living matter (excluding the cell nucleus) has a pH
of about 6.8.
Blood plasma and
other fluids that surround the cells in the body have a pH of 7.2 to 7.3.
Numerous special mechanisms aid in stabilizing these fluids so that cells
will not be subject to appreciable fluctuations in pH. Substances which
serve as mechanisms to stabilize pH are called buffers. Buffers have the
capacity to bond ions and remove them from solution whenever their
concentration begins to rise. Conversely, buffers can release ions whenever
their concentration begins to fall. Buffers thus help to minimize the
fluctuations in pH. This is an important function because many biochemical
reactions normally occurring in living organisms either release or use up
Hayashi is a Heart Specialist and Director of the Water Institute of Japan.
much of a good thing?
essential to survival. It is relatively stable in the air, but when too much
is absorbed into the body it can become active and unstable and has a
tendency to attach itself to any biological molecule, including molecules of
healthy cells. The chemical activity of these free radicals is due to one or
more pairs of unpaired electrons.
About 2% of the
oxygen we normally breathe becomes active oxygen, and this amount increases
to approximately 20% with aerobic exercise.
free radicals with unpaired electrons are unstable and have a high oxidation
potential, which means they are capable of stealing electrons from other
cells. This chemical mechanism is very useful in disinfectants such as
hydrogen peroxide and ozone which can be used to sterilize wounds or medical
instruments. Inside the body these free radicals are of great benefit due to
their ability to attack and eliminate bacteria, viruses and other waste
Active Oxygen in the body
however, when too many of these Free Radicals are turned loose in the body
where they can also damage normal tissue.
sets in when microbes in the air invade the proteins, peptides, and amino
acids of eggs, fish and meat. The result is an array of unpleasant
substances such as:
substances are also produced naturally in the digestive tract when we digest
food, resulting in the unpleasant odor evidenced in feces. Putrefaction of
spoiled food is caused by microbes in the air; this natural process is
duplicated in the digestive tract by intestinal microbes. All these waste
products of digestion are pathogenic, that is, they can cause disease in the
sulfide and ammonia are tissue toxins that can damage the liver . Histamines
contribute to allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria
(hives) and asthma. Indoles and phenols are considered carcinogenic.
products such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, phenols and indoles
are toxic, the body's defense mechanisms try to eliminate them by releasing
neutrophils (a type of leukocyte, or white corpuscle). These neutrophils
produce active oxygen, oddball oxygen molecules that are capable of
scavenging disintegrating tissues by gathering electrons from the molecules
of toxic cells.
however, when too many of these active oxygen molecules, or Free Radicals,
are produced in the body. They are extremely reactive and can also attach
themselves to normal, healthy cells and damage them genetically. These
active oxygen radicals steal electrons from normal, healthy biological
molecules . This electron theft by active oxygen oxidizes tissue and can
oxygen can damage normal tissue, it is essential to scavenge this active
oxygen from the body before it can cause disintegration of healthy tissue. If we can find an effective method to block the oxidation of healthy tissue
by active oxygen, then we can attempt to prevent disease.
Antioxidants block dangerous oxidation
One way to
protect healthy tissue from the ravages of oxidation caused by active oxygen
is to provide free electrons to active oxygen radicals, thus neutralizing
their high oxidation potential and preventing them from reacting with
Research on the
link between diet and cancer is far from complete, but some evidence
indicates that what we eat may affect our susceptibility to cancer. Some
foods seem to help defend against cancer, others appear to promote it.
Much of the
damage caused by carcinogenic substances in food may come about because of
an oxidation reaction in the cell. In this process, an oddball oxygen
molecule may damage the genetic code of the cell. Some researchers believe
that substances that prevent oxidation -- called ANTIOXIDANTS -- can block
the damage. This leads naturally to the theory that the intake of natural
antioxidants could be an important aspect of the body's defense against
cancer. Substances that some believe inhibit cancer include vitamin C,
vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, and gluthione (an amino acid). These
substances are reducing agents. They supply electrons to free radicals and
block the interaction of the free radical with normal tissue.
can avoid illness
As we mentioned
earlier, the presence of toxic waste products such as hydrogen sulfide,
ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles impart an offensive odor
to human feces. In the medical profession, it is well known that patients
suffering from hepatitis and cirrhosis pass particularly odoriferous stools.
offensive stools caused by the presence of toxins are indicators of certain
diseases, and the body responds to the presence of these toxins by producing
neutrophil leukocytes to release active oxygen in an attempt to neutralize
the damage to organs that can be caused by such waste products. But when an
excess amount of such active oxygen is produced, it can damage healthy cells
as well as neutralize toxins. This leads us to the conclusion that we can
minimize the harmful effect of these active oxygen radicals by reducing them
with an ample supply of electrons.
Water, the Natural Solution
There is no
substitute for a healthy balanced diet, especially rich in antioxidant
materials such as vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other foods that
are good for us. However, these substances are not the best source of free
electrons that can block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen.
by electrolysis to increase its reduction potential is the best solution to
the problem of providing a safe source of free electrons to block the
oxidation of normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that reduced
water, water with an excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, is
the best solution because:
potential of water can be dramatically increased over other antioxidants in
food or vitamin supplements.
weight of reduced water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach all
tissues of the body in a very short time.
What is IONIZED WATER?
is the product of mild electrolysis which takes place in the ionized water
unit. The production of ionized water, its properties, and how it works in
the human body are described in the next section. Ionized water is treated
tap water that has not only been filtered, but has also been reformed in
that it provides reduced water with a large mass of electrons that can be
donated to active oxygen in the body to block the oxidation of normal cells.
THE IONIZED WATER UNIT
water: What it is and isn't
water, for example, with a pH of 7 is approximately neutral on the pH scale
of 0 to 14. When measured with an ORP (oxidation potential) meter its redox
potential is approximately +400 to +500 mV. Because it has a positive redox
potential, it is apt to acquire electrons and oxidize other molecules.
Reduced Ionized Water, on the other hand, has a negative redox potential of
approximately -250 to -350 mV. This means it has a large mass of electrons
ready to donate to electron-thieving active oxygen.
discussing the properties of Ionized Water further, let's take a look at
what happens inside an Ionized Water producing unit.
IONIZED WATER Unit works
Water unit, slightly taller and thicker than a large dictionary on end, is
an electrical appliance connected to your kitchen water supply to perform
electrolysis on tap water before you drink it or use it in the kitchen for
cooking or cleaning.
attachment re-directs tap water out of the faucet through a plastic hose
into the Ionized Water unit. Inside the Ionized Water unit, the water is
first filtered through activated charcoal. Next, the filtered water passes
into an electrolysis chamber equipped with a platinum-coated titanium
electrode where electrolysis takes place.
positive ions, gather at the negative electrodes to create cathodic water
(reduced water). Anions, negatively charged ions, gather at the positive
electrode to make anodic water (oxidized water).
electrolysis, reduced water not only gains an excess amount of electrons
(e-), but the cluster of H
seem to be reduced in size from about 10 to 13 molecules per cluster to 5 to
6 molecules per cluster.
water comes out of the faucet, and the oxidized water comes out of a
separate hose leading into the sink. You can use the reduced water for
drinking or cooking. The oxidation potential of the oxidized water makes it
a good sterilizing agent, ideal for washing hands, cleaning food or kitchen
utensils, and treating minor wounds.
IONIZED WATER Unit Produces
electrolysis of the water inside the Ionized Water unit, reduced water comes
out of the cathodic side and oxidized water comes out of the anodic side.
Compare these measurements of these three types of water: tap water before
electrolysis, the reduced water, and the oxidized water.
potential, not pH, is the crucial factor
we have judged the properties of water from the standpoint of pH, in other
words whether water is acidic or alkaline. According to Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo
PhD., the inventor of the Ionized Water unit, "In my opinion, redox
potential is more important than pH. The importance of pH is over
emphasized. For example, the average pH of blood is 7.4 and acidosis or
alkalosis are defined according to deviation within the range of 7.4 +-
0.005. But nothing has been discussed about ORP, or oxidation-reduction
The pH of tap
water is about pH 7, or neutral. When tap water is electrolyzed into Ionized
Water, its reduced water has a pH of about 9 and the oxidized water a pH of
about 4. Even if you make alkaline water of pH 9 by adding sodium hydroxide
or make acidic water of pH 3 by adding hydrogen chloride, you will find very
little change in the ORP values of the two waters. On the other hand, when
you divide tap water with electrolysis you can see the ORP fluctuate by as
much as +- 1,000 mV. By electrolysis we can obtain reduced water with
negative potential that is good for the body.
The Ionized Water
unit produces two kinds of water with different redox potentials, one with a
high reduction potential and the other with a high oxidation potential.
internally, the reduced Ionized Water with its redox potential of -250 to
-350 mV readily donates its electrons to oddball oxygen radicals and blocks
the interaction of the active oxygen with normal molecules.
molecule (BM) remains intact and undamaged.
biological molecules are less susceptible to infection and disease. Ionized
Water gives up an extra electron and reduces the active oxygen (AO), thus
rendering it harmless. The AO is reduced without damaging surrounding
biological molecules. Substances which have the ability to counteract active
oxygen by supplying electrons are called scavengers. Reduced water,
therefore, can be called scavenging water.
internally, the effects of reduced water are immediate. Ionized Water
inhibits excessive fermentation in the digestive tract by reducing
indirectly metabolites such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines,
indoles, phenols and scatoles, resulting in a cleaner stool within days
after reduced water is taken on a regular basis. In 1965, the Ministry of
Welfare of Japan announced that reduced water obtained from electrolysis can
prevent abnormal fermentation of intestinal microbes.
with its redox potential of +700 to +800 mV is an oxidizing agent that can
withdraw electrons from bacteria and kill them. The oxidized water from the
Ionized Water unit can be used to clean hands, kitchen utensils, fresh
vegetables and fruits, and to sterilize cutting boards and minor wounds.
Tests have shown that oxidized water can be used effectively to treat
athlete's foot, minor burns, insect bites, scratches, and so on.
Matsuo, Vice Director of the Water Institute of Japan, has developed another
apparatus capable of producing hyperoxidized water with a redox potential of
+1,050 mV or more, and a pH lower than 2.7. Tests have shown that this hyper
oxidized water can quickly destroy MRSA (Methecillin Resistant
hyperoxidized water is a powerful sterilizing agent, it won't harm the skin.
In fact, it can be used to heal. Hyperoxidized water has proven effective in
Japanese hospitals in the treatment of bedsores and operative wounds with
But perhaps the
most exciting future application of hyperoxidized water is in the field of
agriculture where it has been used effectively on plants to kill fungi and
other plant diseases. Hyperoxidized water is non-toxic, so agricultural
workers can apply it without wearing special protective equipment because
there is no danger of skin or respiratory damage. An added benefit of using
hyperoxidized water to spray plants is that there is no danger to the
environment caused by the accumulation of toxic chemicals in the ground.
Water superior to antioxidant diet
Today we read
much about correct dieting principles and paying attention to what we eat in
order to stay healthy. This is a sensible practice, but it is surprising
that many of us don't realize that the bulk of what eat is composed of
water. Vegetables and fruits are 90% water; fish and meat are about 70%
water as well.
of the importance of vitamin C in diet staples have to admit that its
potency, namely, the redox potential of this important vitamin, rapidly
diminishes with age and preparation for the dining table. Carbohydrates, the
main consistent of vegetables and fruit, has a molecular weight of 180
whereas water has a much lower molecular weight of 18.
with its low molecular weight and high reduction potential, makes it a
superior scavenging agent of active oxygen. But electrolysis inside the
Ionized Water unit not only charges the reduced water with electrons, it
also reduces the size of reduced water molecule clusters.
NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analysis reveals that tap water and well
water consists of clusters of 10 to 13 H2
Electrolysis of water in the Ionized Water unit reduces these clusters to
about half their normal size -- 5 to 6 water molecules per cluster.
As the graph
shows, the NMR signal that measures cluster size by line width at
half-amplitude shows 65 Hz for reduced water and 133 Hz for tap water,
revealing that the reduced water clusters are approximately half the size of
tap water clusters.
This is why
Ionized Water is more readily absorbed by the body than untreated tap water.
Ionized Water quickly permeates the body and blocks the oxidation of
biological molecules by donating its abundant electrons to active oxygen,
enabling biological molecules to replace themselves naturally without damage
caused by oxidation that can cause diseases.
Upstream and downstream theory
disease at the source
Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, Director of the Water Institute of Japan, "To
eliminate the pollutants in a large stream that is contaminated at its
source, we must work on the problems upstream at the headwaters -- the
source of the pollution -- not downstream where we can only try to treat the
evidence of damage caused by the pollution. Ionized Water's contribution to
preventive medicine is essentially upstream treatment."
our model, we consider the digestive tract upstream where we intake water
and food. Although many people today in developed countries are growing more
skeptical about what they eat, they tend to concentrate more on what the
food contains rather than the metabolized products of foods in the digestive
example, consider the typical balanced diet of meat and vegetables. Meat
protein is metabolized into amines while nitrates from fertilizers used to
grow vegetables metabolize into nitrites in the digestive tract. These
amines and nitrites combine to form nitrosamine, a recognized carcinogen.
discussed that odoriferous feces are evidence of excessive fermentation in
the digestive tract, so reduced water performs a very important function
upstream in the digestive tract by reducing this excessive fermentation as
evidenced by cleaner stools within days of starting a steady regimen of
the digestive tract, starting at the liver, reduced water quickly enters the
liver and other organs due to, first, its lower molecular weight, and,
secondly, the size of its clusters. At tissue sites throughout the body,
reduced water with its safe, yet potent reduction potential readily donates
its passenger electrons freely to active oxygen and neutralizes them so they
cannot damage the molecules of healthy cells. Normal cells are protected
from the electron thievery of active oxygen and allowed to grow, mature,
function and regenerate without interference from rogue, oddball oxygen
radicals which tend to steal the electrons from the molecules of normal,
healthy biological molecules.
We are now in
the midst of a water boom. In Japan and other countries consumers are buying
various kinds of bottled and canned water even though water is one of our
most abundant vital resources. Research data reveals that mineral waters
have an ORP of +200 mV, slightly lower than the +400 mV measured for
ordinary tap water. We can say that at least mineral water is marginally
better than tap water from the viewpoint of ORP. Compared to any processed
water for sale, however, Ionized Water with its reduction potential of -250
to -300 mV is beyond comparison due to its ability to scavenge active oxygen
Alkaline Ionized Water for your Health and Longevity.
CHASING THE HIGH ORP
Adventures with ORP and
by Walter Last
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water has several health promoting qualities. I have no doubt that
the most important of these is the strong antioxidant or reducing
property of alkaline ionized water.
This led me to experiment with my Jupiter Masterpiece (equivalent to the
Technos Ionizer in North America) to establish the conditions for
consistently generating the highest antioxidant potential in my water.
want to share some of my experiences in the hope of helping others to
improve the quality of their ionized water. I must confess that the task
turned out to be much more difficult and frustrating than expected but I
am very pleased with the final outcome.
Lets start with some basics.
In chemistry oxidation and reduction are now commonly defined as gaining
or losing electrons.
Oxidation is the loss of an electron from a substance, while in
reduction an electron is gained. Oxidation and reduction occur
simultaneously in two substances. Oxygen is the most familiar electron
acceptor or oxidizer. Iron rusts by combining with oxygen. Thereby the
iron donates electrons and is oxidized while the oxygen gains electrons
and is reduced.
antioxidant activity can be measured as the Oxidation Reduction
Potential or O.R.P. For this I used an ORP meter (Milwaukee SM 500),
which indicates the presence of free or loosely bound electrons as a
negative ORP up to 1000 mV. An ORP of 0 is neutral while an oxidizing
potential can be measured up to +1000 mV. The ORP scale officially
extends from +1200 mV to 1200 mV. However, with this method we cannot
measure purely organic antioxidants, such as vitamin E as their
electrons are much too tightly bound, although vitamin C is partly
ionized and can be measured to some degree.
confuse things, a high negative ORP can also result from a high level of
dissolved hydrogen, and in this case it does not have any antioxidant
property. Large amounts of hydrogen are produced at slow flow rates when
the water becomes strongly alkaline with a pH over 10.0.
The principle of antioxidant
activity is the availability of electrons to neutralize any so-called
free radicals with oxidizing qualities that may damage biological
The electrons present in alkaline ionized water are highly reactive and
react much faster than organic antioxidants to neutralize free radicals.
Furthermore, as we age our body structures lose elasticity, everything
becomes more rigid.
On a biochemical level this increasing rigidity is due to cross-linking
of structural bio-chemicals, which in turn is due to a loss of
electrons. Providing the body with an abundance of highly reactive
electrons can be expected to slow cross-linking reactions and, with
this, the aging process.
Finally, all biochemical energy in our body is produced by transferring
electrons from food molecules onto inhaled oxygen.
Having more available electrons may help us to produce more energy. This
may be the reason why some individuals feel more energetic on ionized
From this outline you can
see why I am so interested in a high negative ORP. The higher the ORP,
the stronger the healing qualities.
However, this does not mean that it is advisable for beginners to start
with a high ORP. As with exposure to sunlight it is best to start with
low doses and increase gradually, and even that may from time to time
produce some healing reactions as with temporary inflammations, mucus
discharge and skin rashes.
Additional healing factors for most individuals are the alkalinity of
the water and its low surface tension.
Most of us are over acid and benefit from our lymph fluid becoming more
neutral. However, this is only a minor factor in using ionized water as
we can alkalize more quickly and cheaply by taking sodium bicarbonate.
The lower surface tension, on the other hand, improves the absorption
and use of nutrients.
In my initial experiments it
appeared that the slower the flow rate the higher the negative ORP.
Therefore I tried to let the water run at the slowest possible rate,
about 7 minutes per liter and at the highest ionizing setting of 5. This
usually gave an ORP of up to 350 mV and a pH of about 10.7. A flow rate
of 5 minutes per liter tended to give somewhat lower ORP and a pH of
about 10.0 to 10.5. However, a slow flow rate combined with a high pH
eventually caused problems with calcium precipitation. My bore water out
of the tap has an ORP of about +250 and a pH of 7.1.
obtained a TDS meter, which measures total dissolved solids or ionic
minerals in parts per million or ppm. I found that my bore water has
about 350 ppm. After some good rain it would drop towards 300 ppm and
also the ORP was usually lower, say about -250 mV and sometimes much
less, even without any rain.
friend used town water supplied from river water, which in turn was
rainwater with a low TDS of about 150 ppm. Initially his ORP readings
were only 60 to 120 mV. The highest ORP was with a very slow flow rate
that produced a pH of 11.7. I suggested using a calcium insert to
increase the mineral content of the water and that increased the ORP to
about 200 at a higher flow rate and lower pH.
ionizing the TDS value of the reduced water may be higher or lower than
the original water. At lower pH values up to about 9 or 9.5 the TDS
tends to increase, either because minerals are now more concentrated or
just more strongly interacting with the electrodes of the TDS meter.
However, with higher pH values the TDS becomes increasingly lower and
continues to drop over time as large amounts of calcium precipitate.
back to my experiments, I was surprised to notice that higher flow rates
could often generate higher ORP with lower pH. With a flow rate of
between 1 and 4 minutes per liter I could sometimes obtain ORP of over
-600 mV at a pH of 8.5 to 9.5. Once I even had an
ORP of over -600 with a fast flow rate and a pH of 7.9. However, after
some time the ORP dropped back to about 300 mV.
Sometimes I had the highest ORP at a flow rate of nearly 1 minute per
liter and sometimes at 4 minutes per liter but usually somewhere
in-between and close to 3 minutes per liter. However, this may be
different with different ionizes and different water. Ionizes with more
or stronger electrodes obviously will have higher optimal flow rates,
while water with lower mineral content will probably need lower flow
table shows typical differences in ORP at different flow rates in
seconds per liter. These were measured simultaneously with three
different probes to show their varying sensitivities. The first line for
each flow rate shows the results about 30 to 60 minutes after ionizing
and the second line in the same samples the next day.
ORP at different flow rates
380 sec .
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