Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - 4  from Ellie Cystalinks

HATHOR

The Hathors are a race of beings from the higher dimensions of Venus. They are masters of the grid of sound and tones which is linked to the language of vibration as well as the tones of the Urim and Thummim. - the breastplate of the high Gods. This links with the lock and key tones to the dimensional gates and portals.  Jan and Keth have a deep Hathor connection.

Hathor is a sky goddess, sometimes represented as a woman with cow's horns between which hangs a solar disc, sometimes portrayed as a cow. Hathor concerns herself with beauty, love and marriage, and watches over women giving birth. Mother and wife of Ra, or in some the nurse and wife of Horus.. Hathor is also a goddess of death and offers comfort to the newly dead as they pass into the after-world.         She symbolizes rebirth.

Hathor was originally worshipped in the form of a cow, sometimes as a cow with stars on her. Later she is represented as a woman with the head of a cow, and finally with a human head, the face broad and placid, sometimes she is depicted with the ears or horns of a cow. She is also shown with a head-dress resembling a pair of horns with the moon-disk between them. Sometimes she is met with in the form of a cow standing in a boat, surrounded by tall papyrus reeds. As the "Mistress of the Necropolis" she is shown as the head of a cow protruding from a mountainside. She symbolizes rebirth.

The horned cow-goddess of love, she was also the deity of happiness, dance and music, and a protector of women. She is depicted as a cow, as a woman with the head of a cow, or as a woman with who wears the stylized cow-horns which hold in them the solar disk. Her symbols also included the papyrus reed, the snake and a rattle called a sistrum - the sistrum representing her as the goddess of music and dancing.

Hathor's name appears to mean House of Horus, referring to her role as a sky goddess, the 'house' denoting the heavens depicted as a great cow (nurturing symbol) or nurse of Horus and later his wife.

Hathor was the daughter of Nut and Ra - the wife of Ra, mother of Ihy.

Many popular legends portray her as the wife of Horus of Edfu, The fruit of this union was Horus the Younger.

In early Egyptian mythology she was the mother of the sky god Horus, but was later replaced in this capacity by Isis. Hathor then became a protectress of Horus.

She was the goddess of love, fertility, joy, and the patron of women and marriage.

She was the goddess of love and beauty, and was often identified with Aphrodite of Greek mythology. She is depicted either as a cow or in human form wearing a crown consisting of a sun disk held between the horns of a cow.


Hathor is among the most ancient of the Egyptian deities. She figures prominently in the creation saga featuring Ra. Although Isis, who shared or adopted many of her attributes, would eventually eclipse her in popularity, Hathor would remain an important deity for as long as worship of the traditional Egyptian gods was legal and permitted. Even today, she continues to be spiritually significant both for those Westerners who find spiritual inspiration in ancient Egyptian religion and also for local Egyptian women who still seek cures, fertility and protection at the remains of her shrines. Hathor is a constant presence in the history of Egypt.

Hathor was the matron and embodiment of what were considered the pleasures of life 5,000 years ago- and which for many, remain so even today: joy, love, romance, fecundity, dance, music, alcohol and perfume. A deity of women, she ruled anything having to do with the female gender. Yet although she was intrinsically connected to the female of the species, Hathor cannot be considered only a women's deity. She also had a large and devoted following among men.

As Lady of Malachite, Lady of Turquoise, [Heart Chakra color] - Hathor was also connected to metal. Holding spiritual dominion over the Sinai Peninsula, she was responsible for the success and well being of the mines in that area. Apparently Hathor was as intensely worshipped by male miners and soldiers, as she was by women in childbirth or young girls desirous of husbands. Both genders were able to recognize the sacred divine within her seductively vibrant joyous beauty.

Hathor may be occasionally fierce and terrible; she is never, however, unattractive. Lest one think her imagery is limited, it is interesting to note that Hathor traditionally takes more forms than perhaps any other ancient Egyptian deity, most of whom are limited to only one or two shapes.

In terms of imagery, she is perhaps the most fluid of all of the Egyptian deities, rivaled only by the controversial Seth, among whose little-known positive attributes include the providing of powerful love magic.

Thus, Bastet appears either as a cat or as a woman with a cat's head, that's it. Hathor, the Great One of Many Names, seemingly takes innumerable shapes: woman, goose, cat, lion, malachite, sycamore fig, to name only a few.

Perhaps Hathor's most famous manifestation is as a cow. This bovine imagery remains most consistent. Even when appearing as a woman, she often sports a cow's head or at least a pair of cow ears, indicating perhaps that no matter how she appears, the nourishing, generosity of the cow is always readily available under the surface. Hathor embodies abundance in life, whether abundance of beauty, wealth, security or justice.

Prominent among common people and the royal state religion, Hathor is frequently depicted suckling the pharaoh, whether in the guise of a cow or as a sycomore fig, a tree that exudes a white milky substance. When she is depicted as entirely a cow, she can be distinguished from run-of-the-mill bovines by her exquisitely made-up eyes.

Malachite, mined in Hathor's province of Sinai, was ground into eye make up. Thus one not only worshipped Hathor through the act of embellishing the eye, one also wore her essence upon one's body. Although one cannot draw definitive parallels as we lack definitive records, one can recognize a merging of physical and spiritual goals, akin to the manner in which painting henna upon the body transcends mere body art for a devout Hindu woman. The ritual ideally brings actual physical connection with the divine presence of the good goddess Laksmi, embodied in henna. Laksmi, quite similarly to Hathor, rules joyousness, abundance and the beauty and vitality of women, the gracious acceptance of the pleasures of life.

Thus Hathor was very likely not merely an abstract religious concept but a vital living component of everyday life. Eventually, Isis would borrow much of Hathor's iconography and her functions, eventually even wearing her headdress. However, the two deities are not the same nor are they interchangeable. Isis is a being of tremendous complexity: there is tragedy inherent in her myth. Ultimately, Isis is the bereaved widow, the self-less, devoted single mother.

For all Isis' fame as the Mistress of Magic, she cannot avoid pain, grief and desolation. Her legend embodies both the noblest and the most hopeless aspects of human nature. Hathor, on the other hand, is the embodiment of success. She lacks the ambivalence Isis sometimes possesses. Instead Hathor has an absolute, laser-like focus.

She may be joyous and benevolent or she may be single-mindedly vengeful towards spiritual transgressors, the enemies of her father. Unhappiness, ugliness, failure: all these are foreign to her, not a part of her being. Even in her most vengeful, dangerous aspect, Hathor takes the form of an elegant if fearsome lioness or the searing but beautiful solar eye.

Hathor in her vengeful aspect is a consistently dangerous force; she cannot be appealed to via emotion. Her destructive rampage is ultimately stopped through a trick utilizing alcohol. Hathor was sponsor not only of miners and perfumers but also of brewers. Implicitly, it is only through her own force that she can be appeased and controlled.

This is unlike Isis, who at the moment of Horus's triumph suffers a pang of mercy and pity for Seth, his rival. Horus's response is to cut off his mother's head, which will ultimately be replaced by that of a cow- an echo of Hathor for whom boundaries are starkly clear, who has no mercy on her father's enemies.

Another parallel exists between Hathor and Isis. In general, the Egyptian gods and Egyptian religion did not travel. The ancient Egyptians were insular, not overly interested in importing or exporting deities. Eventually Isis would become the great exception, with temples in Rome, and throughout Europe, Africa and Asia, as far away as the British Isles. Hathor was her trailblazing predecessor. Beyond the traditional borders of Egypt and Nubia, Hathor was worshipped throughout Semitic West Asia, beloved particularly in the city of Byblos.

She was also adored as far afield as what is modern Ethiopia, Somalia and Libya. The seed of what would be universally beloved within Isis also existed within Hathor. Their appeal transcends national or ethnic boundaries: Hathor perhaps embodies the wishes of those who long for life to be generously benevolent and abundant, while Isis embodies the hopes of those who wish for mercy and kindness.

Hathor was associated with turquoise, malachite and the metals gold and copper. [alchemy of consciousness]

Her demeanor glows with consistent confidence and sunny, good health. Hers is a warm, sensual beauty not aloof or remote. Although she ruled the perfumer's trade in general, Hathor was especially connected with the fragrance of myrrh, which was exceedingly precious to the ancient Egyptians and which on a spiritual level embodied the finest qualities of the feminine.

The protector and sponsor of dancers, Hathor was associated with percussive music, in particular the sistrum. Her traditional votive offering was two mirrors, the better with which to see both her beauty and your own.

Hathor's image, specifically her head, was traditionally used to decorate sistrums and mirrors. Thus when gazing at one's own reflection in the mirror, you would see Hathor looking back, from underneath one's own face, serving as foundation and support, perhaps as role model and goal. This imagery was standard and ubiquitous, it also commonly decorates architectural columns, however one is forced to ask, how would one know it was Hathor? Usually by the cow ears but even more consistently by the hair-do.

Hathor's hair is dressed in so characteristic a fashion that the style now bears her name: archaeologists have dubbed it the "Hathor hair-do." This style is utterly distinctive and perhaps surprisingly modern to our eyes. It is not the heavily bejeweled, elaborately braided hair so commonly depicted in other ancient Egyptian imagery. Rather it is simplicity in the extreme: a simple flip, often parted down the middle.

The 'do wouldn't have looked at all out of place on a French or English mod girl pop singer of the early to mid '60's- a Marianne Faithfull perhaps or Francoise Hardy. It is a simple hairstyle, a hairstyle one can conceivably maintain by oneself, without extensive wigs, servants or leisure time. It is very much an equalizing hairstyle. Ironically, then, it is a hairstyle most commonly seen in the depiction of deities, especially beautiful love goddesses, perhaps demonstrating the intensity of their self-confidence.

While other ancient Egyptian hairstyles are instantly recognizable even today as solely Egyptian, the Hathor hair-do seems to have set an international style, in particular traveling all over the Middle East. Other goddesses are depicted wearing this style, in fact it seems to have become the goddess hairstyle, favored by all the most fashionable deities.

Spiral Hair at bottom - Sacred Geometry - Fibonacci

In Mesopotamia, the beautiful and stylish, ever youthful if fierce, Ishtar dresses her hair this way. So do the beautiful Western Semitic love and war goddesses, Anat and Astarte, who would eventually achieve great popularity in ancient Egypt, perhaps the only foreign deities to do so. They would become incorporated into Egyptian mythology, serving as the designated consolation prize brides for Seth, in the face-saving compromise that concludes his loss to Horus. Anat and Astarte, the ancient equivalent of hot foreign babes, of course wear only the most stylish of hairdos.

Technically, we have no way of actually knowing where this hair-do originated or with whom. However, Hathor's influence remains so consistent that no matter where an ancient goddess plaque is dug up, if she's wearing that flip, she is automatically described as wearing the Hathor hair do. What the goddesses who wear this style have in common with Hathor beyond celestial beauty is a willingness to boldly battle on behalf of justice, their families and followers.

Ishtar, Anat and Hathor: these images of beauty are not passive or vain but action-oriented brave women, perhaps so confident of their inherent beauty that elaborate adornment becomes only necessary for their own pleasure, not as a needed demonstration.

Hathor took on an uncharacteristically destructive aspect in the legend of the Eye of Ra. According to this legend, Ra sent the Eye of Ra in the form of Hathor to destroy humanity, believing that they were plotting aganist him. However, Re changed his mind and flooded the fields with beer, dyed red to look like blood. Hathor stopped to drink the beer, and, having become intoxicated, never carried out her deadly mission. Therefore as a fertility goddess and a goddess of moisture, Hathor was associated with the inundation of the Nile. In this aspect she was associated with the Dog-star Sothis - Sirius - whose rising above the horizon heralded the annual flooding of the Nile.

In the legend of Ra and Hathor she is called the "Eye of Ra."

The sun disc reresents the creational light - the word Re - Ra - meaning ray of light.

Her image could also be used to form the capitals of columns in Egyptian architecture. Her principal sanctuary was at Dendera, where her cult had its early focus, and where it may have had its origin. At Dendera, she was particularly worshipped in her role as a goddess of fertility, of women, and of childbirth. At Thebes she was regarded as a goddess of the dead under the title of the 'Lady of the West', associated with the sun god Re on his descent below the western horizon. The Greeks identified Hathor with Aphrodite who was Venus (as in Hathors from Venus).


Temple of Hathor at Dendera


Thoth and Hathor are depicted as primal deities.

Thoth represents the principles of cosmic order and harmony.

HEKET - HEQET

Frog headed Goddess of creation, childbirth.

She is the moon which since earliest times was understood to be linked with the ebb and flow of water and of fertility. Thus, she is associated with the germination of grain.

Heqet is one of eight deities associated with creation; she is the consort of Khnum, the ram-headed god.  Heqet is the one who instills the spark of life into the body that Khnum molds out of clay.

During childbirth, women wore her amulets. 

Heqet (Heket) was a goddess of childbirth, creation and grain germination. She was depicted as a frog, or a woman with the head of a frog, betraying her connection with water. As a water goddess, she was also a goddess of fertility where she was particularly associated with the later stages of labour. In this way, the title of "Servants of Heqet" may have been a title applied to her priestesses who were trained as midwives.

The ancient Egyptians saw thousands of frogs appear all along the Nile at certain times of the year. This appearance of the reptile came to symbolise fruitfulness and coming life.

She was thought to be the wife of Khnum, the god who creates men on his potter's wheel, and she gave the newly created being the breath of life before the child was placed to grow in the mother's womb.

In the story of the triplets who would be pharaohs, she was the goddess of magically "hastens the birth", in an unspecified manner.

In Hatshepsut's birth colonnade, it is Heqet, with Khnum, who led Ahmose to the birthing room. She also was depicted as the goddess who held the ankh sign of life to Hatshepsut and her ka, fulfilling her job as the giver of life to the newly created child.

She originally appears in the pyramid texts where she helps the pharaoh ascend into the sky. She is also connected with the Osiris myth in the "Funeral of Osiris" at Dendera:

Osiris, ithyphallic and bearded, in mummied form, lying upon his bier; over his feet and his body hover the hawks. At the head kneels Hathor, "Mistress of Amentet, who weepeth for 'her brother'," and at the foot is a frog symbol of the goddess Heqet, beneath the bier are an ibis-headed god holding the Utchat, two serpents, and the god Bes. As such, she was not only a goddess of birth, but of rebirth, because of her life-giving powers.

Amulets of Heqet were worn by women to protect them while they gave birth. During the Middle Kingdom ritual ivory knives and clappers (a type of percussional musical instrument) bore her name or image as protection for inside the home.

There was a Ptolemaic temple to Heqet at Qus, of which only a pylon remains. She was also known as "Lady of Her-wer": A tomb at Tuna el-Gebel has text speaks about a procession in her honor where she asks that the temple of Heqet at Her-wer be restored and protected from inundation, but this temple has not been found, yet.

HORUS - HE WHO IS ABOVE

The falcon-headed god

The name Horus comes from the Egyptian word 'Hor', which translates as 'face'.

He was worshipped as Mekhenti-irry which translates as 'He who has on his brow Two Eyes', the sun and moon representing his eyes, on nights when there is no moon. In this form he was considered the god of the blind.

The followers of Horus invaded Egypt in pre dynastic history, at this time he was venerated as a victorious warlord. He became a part of the state religion and was associated with the sun god, Ra. Horus was so important to the state religion that Pharaohs were considered his human manifestation and even took on the name Horus.

In the more popular religious beliefs of the Osiris cults he was the son of Osiris and Isis. The avenger of his father's murder and the model of a dutiful son. It is in these stories that we find him doing battle with his uncle, Seth.

  • Haroeris (Horus the Elder) An early form of Horus - God of light. His eyes represented the sun and moon. He was the brother of Osiris and Seth. Sometimes he was the son, or the husband of Hathor.
  • Horus Behudety In the form of Horus of Edfu, he represented the midday sun. This Horus was worshipped in the western Delta and later, as his cult spread south into Upper Egypt, a cult center was established in Edfu. Horus of Edfu fights a great battle against Seth and an army of conspirators. He is pictured as a winged sun-disk or as a hawk headed lion.
     
  • Ra-Harakhte (Horus of the two horizons) - He was identified with Ra and the daily voyage of the sun from horizon to horizon. The two deities combined to become Ra-Harakhte. He was represented as a falcon or a falcon-headed man wearing the solar disk and double crown or the uraeus and the atef crown.

  • Harmakhet (Horus in the Horizon) In this form he represented the rising sun and was associated with Khepri. He was also considered to be the keeper of wisdom. He was sometimes pictured as a man with a falcon's head, or a falcon headed lion. But his most recognizable form is that of a sphinx, or as a ram-headed sphinx.

     

  • Harsiesis (Horus son of Isis) This Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris. He was conceived magically after the death of Osiris and brought up by Isis on a floating island in the marshes of Buto. The child was weak and in constant danger from the scheming of his wicked uncle Seth, who sent serpents and monsters to attack him. But his mother, Isis was great in the magical arts and she warded off this evil by using a spell against creatures biting with their mouths and stinging with their tails, and the young Horus survived and grew.

     

  • Harpokrates (The infant Horus) As a child he represented the new born sun and was often pictured being suckled by Isis. he was usually represented as a seated child, sucking his thumb, his head was shaved except for the sidelock of youth. Even as a child, he wore the royal crown and uraeus.

     

  • Harendotes (Horus the avenger of his father)

  • Har-pa-Neb-Taui (Horus Lord of the Two Lands)

    CRYSTALINKS: HORUS


    The name 'Horus' stems from the ancient Egyptian word hr (her) which in its simple form was the preposition 'above' Horus the falcon soars above all the land and its inhabitants, and was, the natural symbol of the King who reigns over all Egypt.

    Every pharaoh was supposedly an incarnation of Horus, who according to legend conquered Seth the evil god of Upper Egypt. Seth was god of turmoil and confusion who murdered Osiris, Horus's father. Horus avenged his father's death and became the god of order and justice. Therefore the pharaoh in Ancient Egypt became Horus on earth, the ruler of the two lands (Upper and Lower Egypt).

    Horus means the 'forsighted', where one eye represents the Sun and other represents the Moon. The Sun was Known as 'Horakhty', or 'Horus in the Horizon'. He was considered as the god of the east and the rising Sun. Horus has the Shape of a falcon or a hawk or can take a human shape with a falcon.

    Horus was the god of the Nile Delta (Lower Egypt) and Seth was the god of Upper Egypt, but Horus became the Symbol of Kingship and the King of Upper and Lower Egypt because it was he who united the two Kingdoms.

    The Kings of the predynastic Egypt were known as the followers of Horus. In this period, Horus was known as the son of Isis and Osiris and inherited the throne of his father.

    Horus was connected with the goddess Hathor. She was the eye of the Sun god Re, the wife of the living King, and the mother of coming King. Her name was written with the hieroglyph of the Horus falcon inside a rectangle-mean 'house' or 'mansion' of Horus.

    Horus, in the shape of a falcon was worshiped in Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt (north of Edfu). Archaeologists found a golden head of a falcon inside the temple in Hierakonpolis, and the name of the city means 'City of the Hawk'. Another temple was built for Horus in the city of Behdet (now Damnhour in the Nile Delta), where Horus was represented in the shape of a winged Sun disk. The modern name Damnhour itself 'town of Horus' derives from the ancient Egyptian dmi-Hor.

    Horus took anew form in the late Period (747 B.C.), when he became a popular god and was represented as a naked child standing above a crocodile holding in his hands snakes, scorpions and lions.

    Therefore Horus became known as a healer for the people with snake bites and scorpion stings.

    One of the most famous scenes of Horus is the representation of the falcon (Horus) perched on a throne behind the head of King Khafre, the builder of the second pyramid at Giza.

    The falcon embraces the King with its wings in order to fly with him to the Sky. Another scene shows Isis nursing Horus. She and Hathor nursed and raised him to take revenge on his uncle Seth, the evil King of Upper Egypt, who killed Osiris, Horus's father.

    Ancient Egyptian literature relates great battles between Horus and Seth and how Horus conquered Seth and united the two lands of Egypt. Therefore he was also known as Horus the fighter.

    Horus Discovery in Abydos, Egypt - March 2002 - made at the cemetery of god Horus, one of the ancient Egyptian trinity that comprises Osiris and Isis, and dates back to the Ptolemaic era. This is the first time a complete cemetery of the falcon shaped god Horus, who was worshipped in the area of Abydos for a long time, was unearthed.

    They found earthenware sarcophagi - linen-wrapped falcons - intact falcon eggs - a scarab pushing one of the eggs forward as told by the ancient Egyptian legend of creation - a group of amulets. Traces of gold were found on the remains of human skeletons.

    HORUS

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